What did it mean that Italy was an Empire?

What did it mean that Italy was an Empire?

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

The caption of a picture here says that "The session of the Grand Council of 9 May 1936, where the Empire was proclaimed". What did it mean in practice that Italy was proclaimed an "Empire"?

According to that obscure source, Wikipedia, on 9 May 1936 King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy was proclaimed Emperor of Ethiopia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Emmanuel_III_of_Italy1

Thus I guess that the only empire proclaimed by the Fascist government of Italy on 9 May 1936 was the Italian Empire of Ethiopia. It is unlikely that the Fascists would proclaim 2 empires on the same day. And I have never read of any formal empire of Italy instead of mere informal descriptions of Italian colonial possessions as an empire.

Here is the title of Victor Emmanuel III from 1936 to 1939:

--- 1936-1939

King of Italy;

Emperor of Ethiopia;

@ Added:

  • [1936] Ethiopia

The Italians conquered the Empire of Ethiopia (1936).

@ Samples:

(June 1936) [4: n° 146; 25 giugno 1936; Doc.# 1143]

< Victor-Emmanuel III (+1947), King of Italy [1900-1946], of Albania [1939-1943]; Emperor of Ethiopia [1936-1943] >

Vittorio Emanuele III per grazia di Dio e per volontà della Nazione Re d'Italia

Imperatore d'Etiopia

And here is his title from 1939 to 1943:

--- 1939-1943

King of Italy, Albania;

Emperor of Ethiopia;

@ Added:

  • [1939] Albania

The Italians conquered the Kingdom of Albania (1939).

@ Samples:

(June 1939) [4: n° 203; 31 agosto 1939; Doc.# 1229]

< Victor-Emmanuel III (+1947), King of Italy [1900-1946], of Albania [1939-

1943]; Emperor of Ethiopia [1936-1943] >

Vittorio Emanuele III per grazia di Dio e per volontà della nazione Re d'Italia

e di Albania

Imperatore d'Etiopia


Thus we see that in 1936 King Victor Emmanuel III took the title of Emperor of Ethiopia and used it until 1943, and that he did not take a title of Emperor of Italy in 1936.

What does it mean, in practice, that North Korea calls itself the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea"?


It's a title, a meaningless proclamation, but little else. Of course, the fascist governments of that era understood that inspirational dreams of reclaiming past glory do matter to a country's citizens, and that proclamation was part of the Mussolini government's pitch about reclaiming Italy's glory days of the Roman Empire, but that was really the extent of it. It was nothing more than public relations or propaganda, or whatever you wish to call it.

What Role Did Italy Play in World War II?

Italy joined World War II as an ally of Germany in 1940, at the behest of its fascist prime minister, Benito Mussolini, which greatly expanded the geographical scope of the war. The Italian campaigns in North Africa and Greece turned into quagmires that required Germany's intervention. In 1943, partially due to the Allies taking over Sicily, the Italians deposed Mussolini and signed a peace treaty with the Allies.

Benito Mussolini had territorial and imperial ambitions of his own and saw allying with Germany as a chance to achieve his goals. When Italy joined the war, the main part of the fighting between Germany and the Allies had already moved too far north for the Italians to be much help. But Italy's entrance brought the war to the Mediterranean region. Italy invaded British-occupied North Africa, then invaded Greece without informing Germany, which was eventually forced to intervene in both campaigns with troops that it needed badly elsewhere. Germany took over Yugoslavia in 1941 in order to get to Greece to help the Italians. After the Allies took over Sicily, the other Italian leaders removed Mussolini from office. Then, they withdrew from the alliance with Germany and signed a peace treaty with the Allied countries. From 1943 to 1945, the Allies had a grueling campaign to force the German troops out of Italy.

Early Modern Italy

In 1792, the French annexed the Italian Peninsula, clearing out all old establishment and remnants of feudal rule. This annexation merged many of the Italian states and imposed a republican rule that only lasted for only a brief period until the French were forced out by Austria in 1796. However, the Napoleonic Wars that began in 1796 led to the unification of Italy into the Italian Republic, which was later named the Kingdom of Italy under the French Republic. The Napoleonic era ended following the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 and the division of the kingdom into eight regions under foreign rule.

What Does Roman SPQR Mean – Origin and Significance

When one visits Rome, the capital of Italy, one can see the letters SPQR quiet widely used both in modern and ancient contexts. What do these letters that are used like a symbol mean, and what do they stand for? Let us find out.

When one visits Rome, the capital of Italy, one can see the letters SPQR quiet widely used both in modern and ancient contexts. What do these letters that are used like a symbol mean, and what do they stand for? Let us find out.

Although Latin has become obsolete, many words and phrases have been incorporated into English and other modern languages. While many of these phrases such as semper anticus (always forward) carpe diem (seize the day) are used mainly in English-speaking countries, SPQR is one of a few such phrases that is used widely in the country of its origin.

Meaning of SPQR

The letters SPQR are the abbreviation of the Latin phrase Senatus Populusque Romanus, which translates to ‘ The Senate and People of Rome’.

Origin of SPQR

The SPQR symbol was first used by the Roman Senate when the nation changed into a republic sometime around 80 BCE., after the people defeated the last Roman emperor Tarquin. In ancient Rome, this symbol indicated the difference between the common man and the governing authority of the senate, and was used as propaganda to promote the senate. Both the people as well as the government had considerable influence on different aspects of nation’s progress. While common folk had formed committees and had the power to influence local issues, the senate had immense authority over the movements of armed forces and diplomats. The sign reminded the people of the fact that they were a part of a fledgling republic, and to be proud that, they were not ruled by a monarch any more.

Purpose of SPQR

In Ancient Rome
The SPQR symbol was the official emblem of the commune of Rome. It was a significant symbol in Roman history, as it was inscribed on all government related items such as currency, public notices, while preparing monuments, and also on the uniforms of Roman soldiers and officers. The emperor was considered as a representative of the people, even though it was the emperor who decided all the decrees made by the senate. This concept came about because the Romans of that period believed that true power and authority of a nation comes from its people.

SPQR also gained some fake and absurd meanings over the years. Locals who were unhappy with the amount of influence the papacy had on the area called SPQR as ‘soli preti qui rregneno‘, which meant ‘only priests reign here’. Non-Romans would call the symbol as ‘sono pazzi, questi Romani’, which meant ‘they’re crazy, these Romans.

Modern Use
Nowadays, the acronym is still used as a municipal symbol of the city of Rome. One can find this sign fixed to all properties of the municipalities of the city, or any project the governing body undertakes, such as monuments, sewer lids, garbage bins, street lights, etc. The symbol has also been inscribed on other modern structures such as Hamburg Rathaus in Germany, and St. George’s Hall in Liverpool. It is also used in common conversation to talk about anything related to ancient Rome.

Even though the SPQR acronym was created by the ancient Romans, its use as a symbol continues to inspire people from around the world towards free thinking and progress. It is and will always be a powerful reminder of empowerment.

The Orsini Family

The Orsini family was one of the most celebrated princely families in medieval Italy and renaissance Rome.

Members of the Orsini include popes,

  • Celestine III (1191-1198)

  • Nicholas III (1277-1280)

  • Benedict XIII (1724-1730),

…and numerous condottieri and other relevant political and religious figures.

According to their family lore, the Orsini are descended from the Julio-Claudian family of ancient Rome.

This is fanciful, as well as the alleged connection to the German families of Anhalt, Baden and Rosenberg sporting the same name. The Orsini also carried on a political feud with the Colonna family until by Papal Bull it was stopped in 1511 in 1571 the Chiefs of both families married the nieces of Pope Sixtus V.

The Orsini were related to the Boboni family existing in Rome in the 11th century.

The first members had in fact always doubled surname of Boboni-Orsini. This first known members is one Bobone, in the early 11th century, father of Pietro, in turn father of Giacinto dei Boboni (1110-1198), who in 1191 became pope as Celestine III.

One of the first great nepotist popes, he created cardinals two of his nephews and allowed his cousin Giovanni Gaetano (Giangaetano, died 1232) to buy the fiefs of Vicovaro, Licenza, Roccagiovine and Nettuno, who formed the nucleus of the future territorial power of the family.

The Boboni surname went lost with his children, who were called de domo filiorum Ursi. Two of them, Napoleone and Matteo Rosso the Great (1178-1246) increased considerably the prestige of the family.

The former was the founder of the first southern line, who disappeared with Camillo Pardo in 1553. He obtained the city of Manoppello, later a countship, and was Papal gonfaloniere.

Matteo Rosso, called the Great, was the effective lord of Rome from 1241, when he defeated the Imperial troops to 1243, holding the title of Senator. Two of his sons and Napoleone were also Senators.

Matteo ousted the traditional rivals, the Colonna, from Rome and extended the Orsini territories southwards up to Avellino and northwards to Pitigliano.

During his life the family entered firmly in the Guelph party. He had some ten sons, which divided the fiefs after his deaths: Gentile (died 1246) originated the Pitigliano line and the second southern line, Rinaldo that of Monterotondo, Napoleone (died 1267) that of Bracciano and another Matteo Rosso that of Montegiordano, from the name of the district in Rome housing the family’s fortress.

The most distinguished of his sons was however Giovanni Gaetano (died 1280): elected pope as Nicholas III, he named the nephew Bertoldo (died 1289) as count of Romagna and had two nephews and a brother created cardinals.

The second southern line

The rise of the Orsini did not stop after Nicholas’ death.

Bertoldo’s son, Gentile II (1250-1318), was two times Senator of Rome, podest of Viterbo and, from 1314, Gran Giustiziere (“Great Justicer”) of the Kingdom of Naples.

He married to Clarice Ruffo, daughter of the counts of Catanzaro, forming an alliance of the most powerful Calabrian dynasty. His son Romano (1268-1327), called Romanello, was Royal Vicar of Rome in 1326, and inherited the countship of Soana through his marriage with Anastace de Montfort. Romano’s stance was markedly Guelph.

After his death, his two sons divided his fiefs, forming the Pitigliano and the second southern line.

Roberto (1295-1345), Gentile II’s elder son, married to Sibilla del Balzo, daughter of the Great Senechal of the Kingdom of Naples.

Among his sons, Giacomo (died 1379) was created cardinal by Gregory XI in 1371, while Nicola (August 27, 1331 February 14, 1399) obtained the counties of Ariano and Celano. The latter was also Senator of Rome and enlarged the family territories in Lazio and Tuscany.

His second son, Raimondello Orsini del Balzo, supported Charles III’ coup d’état in Naples against Queen Joan II.

Under king Ladislas he was among the few Neapolitan feudataries who were able to maintain their territorial power afther the royal war against them.

However, at his death in 1406 the southern Orsini fiefs were confiscated. Relationships with the royal family remained cold under Joan II however, when Raimondello’s son Giannantonio (1386-1453) sent his troops to help her against the usurpation attempt of James of Bourbon, he received in exchange the Principality of Taranto.

The links with the court increased further under Sergianni Caracciolo, Joan’s lover and Great Senechal.

A younger brother of Giannantonio one of Sergianni’s daughters. However, the Orsini changed side when Alfonso V of Aragon started his conquest of the Kingdom of Naples. Giannantonio was awarded with the duchy of Bari, the position of Great Connestable and an appanage of 100,000 ducati. Giannantonio remained faithful to Alfonso’s heir, Ferdinand I, but was killed during a revolt of nobles.

Having died withouot legitimate sons, much of his were absorbed into the Royal Chamber.

Pitigliano line

This line was initiated by Guido Orsini, second son of Romano, who inherited the county of Soana.

He and his descendants ruled over the fiefs of Soana, Pitigliano and Nola, but in the early 15th century wars against the Republic of Siena and the Colonnas caused to lost of several territories. Bertoldo (died 1417) managed to keep only Pitigliano, while his grandson Orso (died July 5, 1479) was count of Nola and fought as condottiero under the Duke of Milan and the Republic of Venice.

Later he passed to the service of Ferdinand I of Naples, but, having not took part to the Barons’ conjure, was rewarded with the fiefs of Ascoli and Atripalda. He took part to the Aragonese campaign in Tuscany and was killed in the siege of Viterbo.

The most outstanding member of the Pitigliano line was Niccola, one of the major condottieri of the time.

His son Ludovico (died January 27, 1534) and his nephew Enrico (died 1528) took part to the Italian Wars at the service of both France and Spain, often changing side with the typical ease of the Italian military leaders of the time.

Two of Ludovico’s daughter married to relevant figures: Geronima to Pier Luigi Farnese, illegitimate son of Pope Paul III, and Marzia to Gian Giacomo Medici of Marignano, an important general of the Spanish army.

The line started to decay after the loss of Nola by Ludovico, who was also forced to accept the Senese suzerainty over Pitigliano. Under his son Giovan Francesco (died May 8, 1567) the county enter in the orbit of the Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Later, the attempt of Alessandro (died February 9, 1604) to obtain the title of Monterotondo was thwarted by Pope Gregory XIII. His son Giannantonio (March 25, 1569 – 1613) sold definitely Pitigliano to Tuscany, in exchange to the marquisate of Monte San Savino.

The line became extinct in 1640 with the death of Alessandro.

Monterotondo line

This line was founded by Rinaldo, third son of Matteo Rosso the Great.

They were often involved in the baronal struggles of the Late Middle Ages Rome, at least three members of the family being elected as Senators, while others foughts as condottieri.

Francesco in 1370 took part to the war of Florence against the Visconti of Milan. Orso (died July 24, 1424) died fighting for the king of Naples in the Battle of Zagonara against the Milanese. His sons Giacomo (died 1482) and Lorenzo (1452) battled for the Papal States, Naples and Florence. One of Giacomo’s daughters, Clarice (1453-July 30, 1488) became Lorenzo de’ Medici’s wife.

Franciotto Orsini was created cardinal by Leo X in 1517.

The most important member of the Monterotondo Orsinis was Giovani Battista Orsini, who became cardinal under Sixtus IV (1483). He was probably among the promoters of the failed plot against Cesare Borgia in 1502, being assassinated as retaliation, together with numerous members of the family.

The line decayed from the late 16th century, when several members were assassinated or lost their lands for various reasons.

Its last representatives Enrico (died September 12, 1643) and Francesco (1592 – September 21, 1650) sold Monterotondo to the Barberini in 1641.

The Tower of Raimondello Orsini

Bracciano line

Napoleone, another son of Matteo Rosso the Great, received Bracciano, Nerola and other lands in what is now northern Lazio.

In 1259 he was Senator of Rome. Thanks to the strategic positions of their fiefs, and to their famous castle built in Bracciano in 1426, they were the most powerful Orsini line in the Lazio.

Count Carlo (died after 1485), son of another Napoleone (died October 3, 1480), was Papal Gonfaloniere.

By his marriage with a Francesca Orsini of Monterotondo was born Gentile Virginio Orsini, one of the most relevant figures of Italian politics in the late 15th century. After Carlo’s death, he enlarged the family’s tenure with lands inherited by his wife, another Orsini from Salerno, and most of all he was amongst the favorites of Ferdinand I of Naples, who appointed him as Great Connestable of Naples.

Together with his cousin, the Cardinal Giovanni Battista, he was among the fiercest opposers of popes Innocent VIII and Alexander VI. In 1492 Gentile Virginio bought the county of Anguillara from Franceschetto Cybo.

During Charles VIII of France’s descent into Italy, he managed to keep Bracciano by fighting without too much dogging against him. Ferdinand II had his fiefs confiscated and imprisoned him in Castel dell’Ovo, where he was poisoned in 1497.

The family recovered this setback under the more friendly Medici popes of the early 16th century. His son Giangiordano was Prince Assistant to the Papal Throne. His son Virginio was a famous admiral for the Papal States and France, but in 1539 he had his fiefs confiscated under the charge of treason.

Paolo Giordano was created first Duke of Bracciano in 1560. An accomplished condottiero, he was however also a ruthless figure who had his wife Isabella de’ Medici murdered. For this and other homicides he had to flee to northern Italy.

He was succeeded by Virginio, whose heir Paolo Giordano II married the princess of Piombino and was created Prince of the Holy Roman Empire.

His brother Alessandro was cardinal and Papal legate, and another brother, Ferdinando (died March 4, 1660) acquired the assets of the other line of San Gemini. In the 17th century the Dukes of Bracciano moved their residence to Rome.

This, along with a general economical decadence, damaged the dukedom, and last Duke and Prince, Flavio (March 4, 1620 ? April 5, 1698) was forced by the huge debts to sell it to the Odescalchi and others.

The line of Gravina, from the name of the eponymous city in Apulia, is the only existing line of the Orsini.

It descends from Francesco (died 1456), a son of Count Carlo of Bracciano. Most of his fief were located in northern Lazio, but he entered in the Neapolitan orbit when in 1418 he was called by Sergianni Caracciolo to fight against the Angevine troops, which he defeated.

By marriage, he obtained the title of count of Gravina. He was made Duke of Gravina by King Alfonso, title definitely assigned to his son Giacomo (died 1472), to which had been added the counties of Conversano, Campagna and Copertino.

Two of Francesco’s son, Marino (died 1471) and Giovanni Battista (died June 8, 1476), were respectively archbishop of Taranto and Grand Master of Knights of Rhodes.

The fourth duke, Francesco, was strangled by Cesare Borgia in 1503.

One of his nephews, Flavio Orsini, was created cardinal in 1565. The fifth duke, Ferdinando (died December 6, 1549) had all his fiefs confiscated by the Spaniards, but regained it after a 40,000 scudi payment.

After the heirless death of Duke Michele Antonio (January 26, 1627), his lands passed to his cousin Pietro Orsini, count of Muro Lucano (died 1641). The latter’s nephew Pier Francesco, who had renounced to the succession in favour to his brother Domenico to became a Dominican, was later elected pope with the name of Benedict XIII.

His successor raised Benedict XIII’s nephew, Prince Beroaldo Orsini, to the dignity of Prince Assistants to the Papal Throne (title held until 1958), after the emperor Charles VI had already, in 1724, made him a prince of the Holy Roman Empire. The last cardinal from the family was Domenico.

The family moved to Rome in the 18th century, where Duke Domenico (November 23, 1790 ? April 28, 1874), married Maria Luisa Torlonia in 1823. In 1850 he was Minister of War and General Lieutenant of the Papal Armies, and Senator of Rome as well.

The descendants of the family live in Rome, Torino, Singapore and in the United States. In the US there are a few people with the last name Orazine, the name was changed when family members emigrated to the United States due to translation difficulties.

Many members of the bloodline reside on the East coast of the United States and some still maintain the proper Orsini name.

Notable buildings

Apart the Bracciano castle, other notable buildings and structures associated with the Orsini include:

  • The Bomarzo Garden, a Late Renaissance-Mannerist gallery of bizarre sculptures and architecture commissioned in the 16th century by Vicino Orsini. It includes also a palace, designed by Baldassarre Peruzzi, begun in 1525 by Gian Corrado Orsini and finished by his son Vicino.

  • The Orsini Palace in Rome, including the Theatre of Marcellus.

  • Palazzo Orsini Pio Righetti, also in Rome.

  • Avezzano

  • Nerola

  • Sant’Angelo Romano (15th century)

  • Soriano nel Cimino (built by Nicholas III in 1278)

  • Vasanello (12th century)

Sources – Rendina, Claudio (2004). Le grandi famiglie di Roma. Rome: Newton Compton.

The Tower of Raimondello Orsini

Gerolama Orsini, Pier Luigi’s wife.

The Orsini Castle in Nerola.

Clarice Orsini of Jacopo.

Who later married Lorenzo de Medici

Pepe Orsini of the Roman Maximus Clan.

He is the Grey Pope and is the King of the Holy Roman Papal Bloodlines. Above the Rothschilds and Rockefellers but in line and of equal stature to the Breakspear, Aldobrandini, and other Papal Bloodlines…

Knight of Malta, Tom Cruise donates to the Optimum Population Trust of Manchester, England. He and his father are major depopulationists. Both are tied to the Papal bloodline Orsini family a most powerful family in complete control of the conspiracy. Pepe Orsini is the grey Pope working with his Black Pope in his Society Of Jesus.

The Orsini (Maximus/Orso) family are the Zoroastrianist shadow hierarchy of the Jesuit Order .

The “Illuminati” is only one of the six current heads that make up “the Beast” and there is a head to that beast… a woman who rides that beast, the evil Queen Hephzibah (the matriarch who is said to be the reincarnation of Semaramis).

You will never read any article about her, she is a Nephilim hybrid a great granddaughter of Lucifer himself, and she is the Mother of the Anti-Christ, and the queen, the Pindar , and others are all afraid of her.

As this previous poster has said, yes there are others that you never hear about and that all information is destroyed before that it can get out. I could not give this information out if I wasn’t one who is feared by the elite myself. The real people in charge, you have never heard of them.

People take note and remember…

Outer Doctrine = What They allow out to Us or allow Us to know even if it is supposedly Back Channel – COSMIC Level Info.

Inner Doctrine = The way it really is and this is only known between Them.


Us = Father / Son / Spirit.

Them = Father / Mother / Son.

Names have Power over, or in relation to, those Beings being called by PROPER Name. For this reason and this reason alone – The Names We commonly know Them by in the Main Stream are merely monikers of much Older and more Powerful Names.

The Original Names are for the most part only known to Them, and believe me – That’s a very select group..

The Real 13 Zoroastrian Bloodlines of The Illuminati

Ptolemaic Papal bloodlines:

  • Orsini

  • Breakspear

  • Aldobrandini

  • Farnese

  • Somaglia

All controlled through the Jesuit Order and their Knights of Malta & Teutonic Knights all based in missile protected Borgo Santo Spirito in Rome.

  • Pepe Orsini – Italy

  • Henry Breakspear – Macau, China

This is the true power finally.

  • This is the Guelph and the Ghibelline power over mankind.

  • The Cecil family were controlled by the powerful Jesuit family known as the Pallavicini.

  • Maria Camilla Pallavicini is far more powerful than Queen Elizabeth II.

  • The Queen and Prince Philip are totally subordinate to the Papal Bloodline the Breakspear Family and their Jesuit UKHQ at 114 Mount Street.

Please go and study who funded Elizabeth I that astronomical amount of money to fight the Spanish, yes Pallavicini.

The most powerful man right now in the conspiracy over this World is a Roman by the name of PEPE ORSINI of the powerful Roman Papal Bloodline the Orsini also known as Orso and the ancient Maximus family.

There is no one more powerful than this figure who is really the Grey Pope.

The Papal Bloodlines are the secret shadow hierarchy of the Jesuit Order even behind the Black Pope touted at the #1.

These powerful bloodlines are the,

  • Breakspear

  • Somaglia

  • Orsini

  • Farnese

  • Aldobrandini

You’ll notice David Rothschild marrying into the Aldobrandini with the pretty, Princess Olimpia Aldobrandini.

Another real head of this is Henry Breakspear who resides now in Macau in China. Many of the Papal Bloodline heads now live in Asia and India. What does that tell you?

The current Black Pope, Adolfo Nicholas was bought forward for the position due to the Jesuits bringing about of Asia as the next power player of the agenda. Both this Black Pope and the white Pope aren’t of Papal Bloodline, they are both commoners.

I’ve named the most powerful families on the planet. I’ve named the Grey Pope the one in-between the white and black but unseen.

Saturnalian Brotherhood – The Real 13 Zoroastrian Bloodlines of the Illuminati

  • House of Borja

  • House of Breakspeare

  • House of Somaglia

  • House of Orsini

  • House of Conti

  • House of Chigi

  • House of Colonna

  • House of Farnese

  • House of Medici

  • House of Gaetani

  • House of Pamphili

  • House of Este

  • House of Aldobrandini

These Egyptian Ptolemaic Dynasty Rulers are in Full Control of the,

  • Company of Jesus

  • High Grey Council of Ten

  • the Black Pope

This is some good info on the Black Pope:

The ‘Black Pope’, Superior Jesuit General (The President of the World), speaks at Loyola ‘Military Fortress’ University in his un-ratified 14th Amendment ‘Little Rome’ D.C United States Corporation.

A corporation under International Maritime Admiralty Law (Uniform Commercial Code) based upon Vatican Canon Law and perfected by the Roman Empire.

He lies about his power, he’s over the Pope as of 1814. He only serves and works with the shadow Jesuits being the Papal Bloodline Orsini’s, Breakspear’s, Aldobrandini’s, Farnese’s, Somalgia’s.

Adolfo is not of Papal Bloodline, some Black Pope’s have been.

The next in power beneath the Jesuits is the Bourbon, King Juan Carlos of Spain. The Roman Monarch of the World, The King of Jerusalem and SMOM Military Navigator.

This is the true World’s power system right now. Adolfo serves as a military General protecting the Zoroathrianism and Mithraism mystery schools. The Jesuits were created by the Papal Bloodline Farnese during the reign of Farnese Pope Paul III.

Loyola was commissioned by Alessandro Cardinal Farnese.

The Borgia crime family created the Jesuits!

After the terrible reign of Pope Alexander VI, the Romans were disgusted with the Spanish and vowed that there would never be another Spanish Pope.

This animosity toward the Spanish was further aggravated by the Sack of Rome in 1527 in order to prevent the divorce of Henry VIII from Catherine of Aragon.

The Borgia answer to this Spanish animosity was the creation of the order of Jesuits – a quasi religious/military strike force whose members were totally dedicated to their Spanish leader who bore the military title of general.

Like the White Pope, the general is elected for life and the Jesuit dynasty is a parallel or pseudo Papacy… Of course, the general is content to run the show from behind the scenes so as not to arouse the age-old Italian hatred for the Spanish.

The Jesuit general is referred to as the ‘”Black” Pope at the Vatican because he always dresses in black.

The Jesuits were officially founding in 1540 by Pope Paul III. Ignatius LIEola became their first general.

Don Francis Borgia was the great-grandson of Pope Alexander VI, and co-founder of the Jesuits. On his mother’s side he was descended from King Ferdinand of Aragon.

The Spanish control the Vatican through the Jesuits.

For the past 500 years, the Spanish Inquisition has controlled the Vatican by means of the Jesuits. All the Jesuits answer to their general in Rome, and he in turn is content to run the show from behind the scenes, without any publicity or public acclaim so as not to arouse the age-old Italian hostility to the Spanish…

Vaticanus then is a combination of Vatic + anus, just as Romanus is a combination of Rome + anus.

Therefore, vaticanus collis or vaticanus mons mean “the prophetic hill or mountain”, which can be rephrased as the hill or mountain of prophecy. The word Vatican is just a shortened form of the word Vaticanus, just like Claudian is a shortened form of Claudianus, as shown above.

This association of the Vatican with prophecy is even confirmed by this recent Catholic book:

Where does the word “Vatican” come from and what does it mean? The word derives from the Latin vates, which means “tellers of the future.”

This name was the name given to a hillside on the west bank of the Tiber River in Rome because daily lineups of fortunetellers used to hawk their “wares” there to passersby on the street.

In the fourteenth century, when the papacy was returned to Rome from Avignon (France), the present-day Vatican became the residence of the popes, and the word came to refer to the enclave in the middle of Rome that had become the seat of the Roman Catholic Church.
Source: Incredible Book of Vatican Facts and Papal Curiosities, by Nino Lo Bello – 1998

Here is a verse from the Latin Vulgate Bible and King James as an example of the use of vatic (emphasis is mine):

Neh 6:12

Et intellexi quod Deus non misisset eum sed quasi vaticinans locutus esset ad me et Tobia et Sanaballat conduxissent eum

And, lo, I perceived that God had not sent him but that he pronounced this prophecy against me: for Tobiah and Sanballat had hired him.

Now, note the following coins minted in Vatican City from 1955 to 1965 under three Popes.

The inscription on the reverse side of the coin reads in Italian “CITTÁ DEL VATICANO”, which as we can now see, means City of Prophecy.

Pope Pius the 12th – 1958

Pope John the 23rd – 1959

Pope Paul the 6th – 1963

Rev 17:18

And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.

There is also a woman on the reverse side, and at her feet is her title, FIDES, which means faith. This woman is symbolic of the Roman Catholic faith, or Roman Catholic Church.

Interestingly, the word anus in Latin also means “old woman”, so Vaticanus is a combination two words that also result in The Old Woman of Prophecy, this woman being symbolic of the Catholic Church.

Above is a papal medal minted by Pius XI in 1929 to commemorate both the Lateran Treaty, which restored Papal sovereignty and made Vatican City an independent state, and the 50th jubilee of his priesthood.

The sunburst wafer of the Eucharist appears in the sky above the Lateran and St. Peter’s basilicas, over the cup of the Mass.

Here is a photo of the same symbology of the cup and wafer host of the Catholic mass, used in the window of the church Dominus Flevit on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the temple mount of Jerusalem, online at Christus Rex. Note the wavy sunburst pattern around the cup.

FIDES, the Catholic faith, holding the golden cup of the Mass, portrayed by Lorenzo Sabbatini and his assistants from 1573 -1576 on the vault of the First Sala dei Foconi, the Vatican.

Speaking about His teachings, Jesus Christ said:

Mat 9:17 Neither do men put new wine into old bottles: else the bottles break, and the wine runneth out, and the bottles perish: but they put new wine into new bottles, and both are preserved.

FIDES, the Catholic faith,

holding the golden cup of the Mass,

portrayed by Lorenzo Sabbatini and his assistants

on the vault of the First Sala dei Foconi, the Vatican.

So the pure teachings of Jesus are symbolized by new wine (non-alcoholic grape juice), but the golden cup of wine in the hand of the woman of Revelation 17 is full of abominations and the filthiness of her fornication, which represent apostate doctrine, stupefying corrupted dogma, the commandments (precepts) of men, by which she has made all the nations to become drunken.

Ceiling panel painting of FIDES by Francesco Podesti,
Immaculate Conception room of the Borgia Tower, the Vatican.

Rev 17:2 With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication. …
Rev 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:

The Catholic faith is again represented in these paintings as a woman holding a golden cup of wine with the round wafer of the Eucharist.

FIDES portrayed over the pulpit of the Benedictine Melk Monastery on the Danube in Austria, built in the early 18th century.

In FIDES’ left hand is the golden cup (in front of the cross), and behind her right shoulder is the pagan sunburst image.

This is the title page of a Roman Catholic Missal, published in 1779, which depicts a cup-holding FIDES.

The Missal “contains the prayers said by the priest at the altar as well as all that is officially read or sung in connection with the offering of the holy Sacrifice of the Mass throughout the ecclesiastical year”, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia.

Can it be any plainer that the Catholic Church has indeed adopted the symbology of a woman holding a golden cup, precisely as described, and in fulfillment of the prophecy of Revelation 17?

Indeed, and it would seem that no other Christian denomination but the Catholic Church has depicted itself in this manner.

Papal Rome’s symbolism of FIDES apparently originated with ancient Pagan Rome. On the left is a strikingly similar Roman Denarius, with FIDES holding military standards, a common theme on coins from ancient Rome, depicting a military faithful to the reigning emperor.

As above so below
Roma, Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano

Here is another sculpture of FIDES, titled The Triumph of Faith over Idolatry by Théodon Jean Baptiste, in Rome’s Chiesa del Gesù, the Jesuit Church of Rome. This sculpture is on the left side of the tomb of Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits.

Rev 12:3 And there appeared another wonder in heaven and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads.

Rev 12:4 And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.

Rev 12:9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.

The above verses make clear, in even superficial reading, that the Great Red Dragon is Satan.

But there is another relationship that is not as readily apparent. Verse 4 is referring to the birth of Jesus, and Satan’s attempt to kill the infant Jesus. Satan however, did not attempt this act of murder on his own. He made his attempt through the power of one man on earth.

Mat 2:13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.

Herod the Great, the King of Judea and Palestine was the agent Satan used in his attempt to kill the infant Jesus.

It is significant to note that Herod received his office from the Roman Empire. In 37 B.C. Herod the Great conquered Jerusalem with the aid of Roman armies and made himself king.

Now notice again in Rev 12:3 that Satan is described as having seven heads, ten horns and seven crowns.

This is important because it is a key to identify Satan and his agents elsewhere in Revelation:

Rev 13:1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.

Rev 13:2 And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.

Here another agent of Satan can be found.

Although nearly identical in description, it is not Satan, because verse 2 says this beast power gets his power from the dragon – a clear reference to Satan. As we observed in Matthew, Satanused the power of the ancient Roman Empire to attempt the murder of Jesus. The dragon and Rome worked with the same mind toward the same goal.

So in Rev 13:2 we can possibly substitute Rome for the word Dragon.

The coat of arms of Gregory XIII shown here is one of two that can be found above the doors in the Gallery of Maps in the Vatican.

Revelation 12 clearly tells us that the dragon is symbolic of Satan, so why did a pope use it as his symbol?

In 1582, by decree of Gregory XIII (Inter Gravissimas), 10 days were dropped from the calendar, and a new system of leap years was inaugurated.

Zion – Sion – Sun

For most people “ Zion” is the name for Jerusalem as well as for the nation of Israel (Isis-Ra-El).

More specifically “Sion” is the name given to a hill of Judea on which the city of Jerusalem is built. In reality, the name “Zion” refers to “Sion”, meaning “Sun”.

Therefore the name “Zionism” is actually referring to the sun-cult, the Babylon cult, and f.i. relates to secret societies like the “ Priore de Sion” or “Priory of Sion ” (meaning: priory of the Sun”), which lost some of its secrecy because of the fact that the Rennes le Chateau mystery became so popular among certain circles.

“The Priory of Sion is a secret society created around the Merovingian bloodline (whose ancestors [it is claimed] can be traced back to the royals of Sumer , Troy and the Greek ‘Gods’) and related to the Templars as well as the Illuminati .”

It’s particularly because of the true meaning of “Zion”, that Jerusalem’s hill has been named that way.

As for the sun-cult adepts, hills symbolize the way to get closer to their God, due to the fact that at the top of them one is closer to the sun, symbolizing their God.

Hence “mount Sion” or “Sun mountain”.

The Imperial Nobility of Italy

H.E. Count / Graf Don Francisco Acedo Fernández Pereira ,
de jure Duke of Candia and Duke of Crete ,
Count of Dominè , Count of Bergamin ,
Count Wetter-Tegerfelden , Patrician of Naples ,
Noble of Paternò , Hidalgo of Navarre and Castille .

H.E. Count / Graf Don Manuel Santiago Acedo Fernández
Patrician of Naples , Noble of Paternò ,
Hidalgo of Navarre and Castille.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Countess / Graefin Donna Matilde Antonia Fernández del Amo
(Countess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Antonia Clemente Alberti di Poja .
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Marquis / Margrave Don Camillo Aldobrandini.
(Marquess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Gabriele Alliata di Villafranca .
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

See: Count and Baron von Reinheim and
Baron von Steffenberg, Senior line*

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Aaron Alonzo di Ancona ,
Duke / Herzog of Filottrano and of Monte Conero ,
Marquess / Margrave of Apiro, Count / Graf of Visso ,
Noble and Patrician of Rome and Ancona .
(Prince, Duke, Marquess and Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Princess / Furstin Donna Arianna Alonzo di Ancona ,
Duchess of Filottrano and of Monte Conero ,
Marchioness of Apiro, Countess of Visso .
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Princess / Furstin Donna Alyssandria Alonzo di Ancona ,
Duchess of Filottrano and of Monte Conero ,
Marchioness of Apiro, Countess of Visso .
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

Carlo Antonelli.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Alessandro d’Aquino.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Federico Cristiano Attems.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Francesco d’Avalos.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

Luciano Aventi.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

Giangiorgio Barbasetti di Prun.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Barbianno di Belgioioso D’Este .
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Guido Barbianno di Belgioioso.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Ferrante Mercurino Benvenuti.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

Luigi Bertolini.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

Lanfranco Blanchetti Revelli.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

Knight / Ritter Bonacolsa Bonacossi.
(Knight of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Nicolo Francesco Boncompagni Ludovisi.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Giancarlo Bonfazi di Statte
de jure Prince of Tournai ,
Count of The Holy Roman Empire ,
Count of Statte, Baron of Ardgour .
(Count of The Holy Romann Empire)

H.R.H. Simona Bonfazi di Statte
de jure Princess of Tournai ,
Countess of The Holy Roman Empire ,
Countess of Statte, Baroness of Ardgour .
(Countess of The Holy Romann Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Frederico Bossi Fedigrotti.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

Marco Alvise Bragadin.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Baron / Freiherr Guido Buffa.
(Baron of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Neri Capponi.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Francesco Caracciolo.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Gregorio Carafa Della Spina.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Baron / Freiherr Giuseppe Compagnino .
(Baron of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Furst Carlo Castelbarco Albani Visconti Simonetta.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Furst Castracane Degli Antelminelli.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

Lady / Frau Lucrecia Herrera Cozzarelli.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Agostino Chigi Albani Della Rovere.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Oscar Cigala.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

Raimondo Claricini di Dornpacher.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

(House of Steinhurst von der Steinhorst, (*Senior line)
See: Princely County and Barony von der Steinhorst,
Barony of Dromcummer , *Senior Line .
Kingdom of Westphalia, Prince Electorship of Westphalia
Principality of Fulda, Marquisate of Auvergne, *Cadet Line .

H.Ill.H. Count / Graf Nelson Keith Steinhurst von der Steinhorst ,
Baron / Freiherr von dem Cherso .
(Baron of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.Ill.H. Countess / Graefin Diana Elaine Antoninich-Steinhurst von der Steinhorst ,
Baroness / Freifrau von dem Cherso .
(Baroness of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Prince Keith Patrick Steinhurst of Westphalia ,
Baron / Freiherr von dem Cherso .
(See: Kingdom of Westphalia, *Cadet Line)
(Baron of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.Ill.H. Countess / Graefin Joanna Nicole Steinhurst von der Steinhorst ,
Baroness / Freifrau von dem Cherso .
(Baroness of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Giovanni di Collalto.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Antonio Vicardo Colloredo Mels.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

Lady / Frau Lucrecia Cozzarelli.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Countess / Graefin Gisella de Conti.
(Countess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Kyrill di Gerasa ,
Conte di Gerasa , Bishop of Aurora and Illinois .
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Don Prince / Furst Jonathan Paul Andrea Doria Pamphilj Landj .
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Marquess / Margrave Giorgio Doria ,
Count / Graf of Montaldeo .
(Marquess of The Holy Roman Empire)

(The Royal House of Johnson,*Senior Line)
(See: Duchy of Florence and Principality of Santa Croce)

H.R.H. Prince Ralph of Etruria,
Duke of Florence, de jure King of Etruria,
Imperial Vice-Chancellor of Italy .
(Kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Marianne of Etruria,
Duchess of Florence, de jure Queen of Etruria.
(Kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Prince Rutherford of Etruria ,
Hereditary Prince of Etruria,
Duke of Florence.
(Kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Baron / Freiherr Carlo Fiorio.
(Baron of The Holy Roman Empire)

(The Royal House of Johnson,*Senior Line)
(See: Kingdom of Etruria and Principality of Santa Croce)

H.R.H. Prince Ralph of Etruria,
Duke / Herzog of Florence ,
(Duke of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Marianne of Etruria,
Duchess / Herzogin of Florence ,
(Duchess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Prince Rutherford of Etruria ,
Hereditary Duke / Herzog of Florence ,
(Duke of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Antonio Sciortino .
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

Piero Alessandro Franchini Stappo.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Alessandro dalla Fratta Pasini.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Walfredo della Gherardesca.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Don Alberto Carlo Giovanelli.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Maurizio Gonzage.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

Giovanni Gramatica.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

Knight / Ritter Gian Andrea Gropplero di Troppenburg.
(Knight of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Francesco Guasco Gallarate.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Baron / Freiherr Giuseppe Guidobono Cavalchini Garofoli.
(Baron of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.H. Prince / Furst Don Andre Hercolani.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Baron / Freiherr Vincenzo Impellizzeri.
(Baron Of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Landi of Valditaro ,
Prince of Valditaro .
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

His Imperial and Royal Highness
Prince Karl Friedrich of Germany ,
Imperial Prince Elector of Lombardy ,
Duke and Prince of Lombardy ,
de jure King of Lombardy .
(Prince Elector of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.I.&.R.H. Prinz Karl Friedrich von Deutschland,
Herzog von Swabia , Herzog von Saxe-Altenburg ,
de jure Charles VIII I.R. ,
de jure King of Italy / Lombardy.
(King in The Holy Roman Empire)

H.I.&.R.H. Prinz Karl Friedrich von Deutschland,
Herzog von Swabia, Herzog von Saxe-Altenburg,
de jure Charles VIII I.R.
Duke / Herzog of Lombardy.
(Duke of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.I.&.R.H. Prinz Karl Friedrich von Deutschland,
Herzog von Swabia, Herzog von Saxe-Altenburg,
de jure Charles VIII I.R.
Prince / Furst of Lombardy.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

Reverts back to the Imperial Crown.
Duke / Herzog of Lucca.
(Duke of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Marquis Don Marco Lupis Macedonio Palermo,
13th Duke of San Donato, 12th Duke of Grottolelle,
14th Marquis of Tortora, 11th Marquis of Ruggiano,
10th Marquis of Oliveto, 8th Marquis of Capriglia,
Count / Graf and Knight / Ritter of the Holy Roman Empire .
(Count and Knight of The Holy Roman Empire)

Gianfranco Mach Di Palmstein.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Marquis / Margrave Antonio Maresca .
(Marquis of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Marulli Di San Cesario .
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Marulli.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Don John Malcolm James Cracknell,
Duke and Marquis of Massa and Carrara.
(Duke and Marquis of The Holy Roman Empire)

Reverted back to the Imperial Crown and Emperor,
Duke of / Herzog von Modena.
(Sovereign Duchy of The Holy Roman Empire)

(The Royal House of Johnson,*Senior Line)
(See: Kingdom of Etruria and Duchy of Florence)

H.R.H. Prince Ralph of Etruria,
Prince di Santa Croce, Prince del Monte Titano ,
Duke di Santa Croce , Duke del Monte Titano,
Marquis del Monte Titano , Count of Valais ,
Count del Monte Titano , Count and Baron Johnson ,
Reichsritter of The Holy Roman Empire ,
Noble of Rome and Patrician of Rome .
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Marianne of Etruria,
Princess di Santa Croce, Princess del Monte Titano ,
Duchess di Santa Croce , Duchess del Monte Titano,
Marchioness del Monte Titano , Countess of Valais ,
Countess del Monte Titano , Countess and Baroness Johnson
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Prince Rutherford of Etruria ,
Hereditary Prince di Santa Croce ,
Duke del Monte Titano, Marquis del Monte Titano .
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

(*Cadet Line)

H.E. Count / Graf Charles Daniel II Johnson di Santa Croce ,
Baron / Freiherr di Santa Croce .
(Count and Baron of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Countess / Graefin Rebecca Johnson di Santa Croce ,
Baroness / Freifrau di Santa Croce ,
(Countess and Baroness of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Charles Daniel III Johnson di Santa Croce ,
Baron / Freiherr di Santa Croce .
(Count and Baron of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Countess / Graefin Jennifer Johnson di Santa Croce ,
Baroness / Freifrau di Santa Croce , (Mrs. Anderson).
(Countess and Baroness of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Andrew Johnson di Santa Croce ,
Baron / Freiherr di Santa Croce
(Count and Baron of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Bonifazio Meli Lupi.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

Part of the Imperial Patrimony of the Emperor.
Duke of / Herzog von Milan.
(Duke of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Pietro Milano Franco D’Aragona.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

Francesco Milano di Frisinga.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

Part of the Imperial Patrimony of the Emperor.
Duke / Herzog and Count / Graf of Friuli.
(Duke and Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Montecuccoli Degli Erri.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Montecuccoli-Laderchi.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

Part of the Imperial Patrimony of the Emperor.
Duke / Herzog of Naples.
(Duchy of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Ladislao Odescalchi.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Heinrich von Orsini und Rosenberg.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Giulio Pallavicini.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Princess / Furstin Donna Elvina Pallavicini.
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Marquis / Margrave Adalberto Pallavicini.
(Marquis of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Marquis / Margrave Raffaele Pareto Spinola.
(Marquis of The Holy Roman Empire)

Pier Giacinto Paribelli.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Luciano Pavarotti di Modena
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Francesco Pecori Giraldi.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Marquis / Margrave Bernardo Pianetti.
(Marquis of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Nicola Pignatelli Aragona Cortes.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Mario Pignatelli Aragona Cortes.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Alessandro Pontoglio-Bino.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Prince / Furst di Porcia e Brugnera.
(Prince and Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

Antonio Raggi.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

Gianluigi Ravignani de’Piacentini.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.H. Prince / Furst Don Filippo Rospigliosi.
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Auselmo Sarchi.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

Ugo Vittorio.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Baron / Freiherr Vittorio Emanuele Salvadori di Wiesenhof.
(Baron of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Prince Vittoria Emanuele of Savoy, Prince of Naples .
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Marina of Savoy, Princess of Naples .
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Prince Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy ,
Prince of Venice and Piedmont .
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Clotilde Marie of Savoy ,
Princess of Venice and Piedmont .
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Vittoria of Savoy .
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Luisa of Savoy .
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Maria Pia of Savoy .
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy .
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy .
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Prince Amedeo of Savoy, 5th Duke of Aosta .
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Priness Silvia of Savoy, Duchess of Aosta .
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Bianca of Savoy .
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Prince Aimone of Savoy, Duke of Apulia .
(Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Mafalda of Savoy .
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Isabella of Savoy .
(Princess of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.M.S.H. Prince / Furst Giorgio I of Seborga ,
(Sovereign Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Pieralvise di Serego Alighieri.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Fausto Solaro.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

Knight / Ritter Camillo Stanchina.
(Knight of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Giovan Battista Strassoldo.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Baron / Freiherr Carlos Taxis Bordogna Valnigra.
(Baron of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Don Federico Tomasella ,
Count and Baron Tomasella , Noble of Rome.
(Count and Baron of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Countess / Graefin Donna Carmen Alicia Dotti-Tomasella,
Dowager Countess and Baroness Tomasella.
(Countess and Baroness of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.R.H. Princess Alicia Gabriela of Westphalia,
(nee: H.E. Countess Donna Alicia Gabriela Tomasella)
Countess and Baroness Tomasella .
(See: The Kingdom of Westphalia).
(Countess and Baroness of The Holy Roman Empire)

Part of the Imperial Patrimony of the Emperor.
Margrave of Tuscany.
(Margraviate of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.I.&.R.H. Archduke Sigismund von Habsburg of Austria,
Prince of Tuscany, Head of the Grand Ducal House of Tuscany.
(Prince, Duke, and Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

Part of the Imperial Patrimony of the Emperor.
Duke / Herzog and Count / Graf of Turin.
(Sovereign Duke and Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Ettore Valvasone.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Ludovico dal Verme.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

Part of the Imperial Patrimony of the Emperor.
Margrave and Prince / Furst of Verona.
(Margrave and Prince of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.E. Count / Graf Mariano Ugo Windisch-Graetz
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

Antonio Zorzi Giustiniani.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

What did it mean that Italy was an Empire? - History

Variants of the term "Moor" have been used by many Europeans since ancient times as a general description for indigenous Africans. Contrary to popular belief, the term is not synonymous with "Islamic" or any specific Arab or African religion, civilization, or ethnicity.

The artist, Christopher Wren (1632-1723), specifically entitled this painting, "Le Maure", French for "The Moor"
The origin of the English term, "Moor," is the Greek word, "&mu&alpha&upsilon&rho&omicron" or "mavro" which literally means "black, blackened or charred" and has long been used to describe black or very dark things such as, "Mavri Thalassa" which refers to the Black Sea or "mavri spilia" which means "black cave." Ancient Greeks used the term to describe the complexion of Africans and (even today, some Greeks use "mavro" to refer to Africans, although in a pejorative manner).

One need not be a linguist to see the word's evolution from the Greek "mavro" to the Latin word, "mavrvs" (actually, "mavro" in the ablative, singular, masculine Latin form). The English transliteration is "Maurus" and the plural form is "Mauri," specifically used by ancient Romans in reference to Black Africans. Writers in both Greek and Latin specifically used the term as a racial identity. In the Epitome de Caesaribus (390s AD), we learn that Aemilianus was "a Moor by race." Procopius of Caesarea (500-565 AD), a Byzantine scholar who wrote in Greek, said in his History of the Wars, "beyond that there are men not black-skinned like the Moors. "

Even through the middle ages, the term (as well as the Spanish, "moro," the German "mohr," the Dutch "moor" etc.) continued to be used in reference to Black Africans. For example, in one of the oldest Dutch texts, Lancelot-Compilatie (1300s AD), a Moor was described specifically as "black."

An image entitled, "Habit of a Moor of Arabia," from Thomas Jefferys' A Collection of the Dresses of Different Nations (1757-1772)
Further proof of the true definition of the Latin term "Maurus" can be found in early English-Latin dictionaries:

- "Maurus" was synonymous with "Moor," "negro," and "Aethiops" in John Etick's A new English-Latin dictionary (1783)

- In A new Latin-English dictionary by William Young (1810), "Maurus" is a "black Moor"

- According to the Ainsworth's Latin Dictionary, Morell's abridgment by Alexander Jamieson, Robert Ainsworth (1828), "Maurus" means "black Moor"

The English term "Moor" also meant "Black" in English dictionaries and encyclopaediae prior to the 20th century:

- "Moor" meant "negro" or "black-a-moor" in A Dictionary of the English Language (1768) by Samuel Johnson

- The Encyclopaedia Londinensis (1817) by John Wilkes lists "moor" as follows: "[maurus, Lat. &mu&alpha&upsilon&rho&omicron, Gr., black.] a negro a blackamoor."

- John Olgilvie's The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language (1882), a Moor was a "black man or negro"

Even the UK National Archives concurs with this assessment:

"In Britain it was often used to refer to ANY Black person (particularly Muslims). The word 'Moor' appears in Shakespearean literature. It was spelt in a variety of ways (such as 'more', 'moir', 'moorish' 'moris' 'moryen') and often combined with 'black' or 'blak', as in 'black moor', 'blackamoor' and 'black more'. 'Blackamoor' was also used as a synonym for 'negroe' in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries."

In recent years, however, a number of revisionists (including wikipedia editors) have decided to deliberately misrepresent the words "Maurus" and "Moor" to simply mean Arab, Muslim and/or Berber--a grave contrast to historical precedent.

Misconceptions about Etymology

Contrary to popular belief, the English word "moor" does not descend from "Almoravid," the name of the dynasty that controlled much of present-day Morocco, Mauritania and Southern Spain from 1040 to 1147 AD. Almoravid is actually the anglicized version of the Arabic name, Al-Murabitan, which roughly means "those who are ready to defend." As aforementioned, the Latin and Greek versions of the word "moor" were used several centuries prior to the existence of the Almoravid dynasty. According to Arab historians during the dynasty's reign, the Almoravids were not even native to Africa, but from Arabia.

Moors In Ancient and Medieval European History

The oldest depiction of St. Maurice in the Cathedral of Magdeburg, Germany
The ancient Romans thoroughly documented the lives of indigenous Africans to whom they commonly referred as the Moors. By the 4th century AD, the Roman army heavily recruited Moors for their exceptional skill in battle. One such Moorish general, Aemilianus (207-253 AD) as described in Epitome de Caesaribus (390s AD), was so skilled that he was made emperor in the Roman province of Moesia (Balkan peninsula), albeit for only 4 months' time.

Other skilled Africans were made Catholic patron saints, such as the popular St. Maurice or Mauritius in Latin as described in the Passio Martyrum Acaunensium (The Passion of the Martyrs of Agaunum) by French bishop St. Eucherius (434-450 AD). According to the text, St. Maurice lived around 286 AD and was believed to be part of the Theban Legion of Egyptian Christians who served in the Roman army under his command. St. Maurice's brigade was supposedly decimated for disobeying orders to kill Christians in Roman Helvetia (Switzerland). The oldest known physical representation of him, however, was not created until 1281 AD (a detailed statue now housed in the cathedral of Magdeburg, Germany shown on the right).

A copy of Tabula Peutingeriana, the oldest known Roman map of northwest Africa (300 AD)
Neither Aemilianus nor St. Maurice were from so-called "Mauretania" (Latin: Mavritania) which is erroneously believed to be the name of an ancient Roman province along the northwestern coast of Africa. This particular region was neither called "Mauretania" in any known ancient literary text nor was it named after the so-called "Mauri tribe," as many modern historians believe. "Mauri" is merely the plural form of the Latin transliteration, "Maurus," as mentioned above. The oldest known map of that region (shown at right) shows its name was Tingi (or Tingitana in literature). Instead, Roman Catholic writers of the 5th-9th centuries AD used "Mauretania" synomymously with all of Africa, not any one particular region.

St. Zeno of Verona (unconfirmed date, but likely in Renaissance era), courtesy of David Monniaux
A well-known Catholic saint from Africa was Victor Maurus or Saint Victor the Moor, a martyr who supposedly lived around 303 AD (the date of the oldest known depiction of him might not be reliable since the church in which it is found, the Basilica of Saint Victor near Milan, was reconstructed several times and then nearly destroyed in World War II). The life of another African Catholic martyr, St. Zeno of Verona, was first recounted by 7th century Italian author, Coronato who affirmed that Zeno was an African native.

By 470 AD, following the fall of the Roman empire, Africans slowly began repopulating southern Europe, and by 711 AD, General Tarik ibn Ziyad al-Gibral (or Tariq bin Abdullah bin Wanamu al-Zanati), an Islamized African native whence the name, "Gibraltar," is derived, led a major invasion beyond that same peninsula. It is clear Tarik was African. Al Idrisi (1099-1161 AD), a cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Sicily (his family descends from the Arab Idrisids who conquered Morocco and Southern Spain in 788 AD), referenced him as Tariq bin Abd 'Allah bin Wanamu al-Zanati. The "al-Zanati" refers to the Zenata people of Northwest Africa.

Tarik's fortress (shown below) is the earliest known medieval castle in Europe, built centuries before those of the Loire Valley in France. As legend has it, the phrase, "Thank heaven for 711" comes from the overwhelming sentiment of relief experienced when Moorish civilization permeated the Iberian peninsula (Spain, Portugal and Andorra) and Southern France and replaced primitive Visagothic feudal serfdom. For over 750 years, the Moors would lead Spain into an unprecedented era of freedom of association, religion, education and enterprise.

"Moorish" Castle overlooking Gibraltar (700s AD)
A depiction of Moorish noblemen playing the board game commonly known as chess and one playing a harp in Alfonso X's Libro de los Juegos ("Book of Games", 1283 AD)

The Battle of Roncevaux (778 AD) between Roland (left) and King Marsile (right) in the Song of Roland, the oldest French book held in the French National Library
By 800 AD, the Franks began efforts to contain the spread of Moorish society to the south of the Pyrennees mountains. Much of the literature, lore and art that followed centered around the Franks' efforts to defeat the Moors. For instance, the Song of Roland (French, La Chanson de Roland, 1140-1170 AD), the oldest known French literary work, describes Frankish Charlemagne's (742-814 AD) long campaign in southern France. The text's account of a Moorish leader named Marsile, is as follows:

"Although Marsile has fled, his uncle Marganice remains, he who rules Carthage, Alfrere, Garmalie, and Ethiopia, an accursed land. He has the black people under his command, their noses are big and their ears broad, together they number more than fifty thousand. They ride fiercely and furiously, then they shout the pagan battle cry."

Then another African general whom the Franks called Abisme is described as follows: "In the forefront rides a Saracen, Abisme. He is as black as molten pitch."

"Wild Men and Moors," a tapestry (1350-1400 AD) depicting the ruling Moorish Strasbourgois of France/Germany (Boston Museum of Fine Arts)

A Moor in Spain, portrayed in a Cantiga (1200s AD)

One of the oldest images of the crowned "Freising Moor" c. 1316 AD
There were also several accounts of Moors in northern and central Europe, including that of the so-called "Freising Moor." The oldest known use of his image on any coat of arms was created around 1300 AD by Bishop Emicho of Wittelsbach in Skofja Loka, Slovenia. The town of Freising, Germany's oldest known coat of arms dates to 1362, which included the head of the Moor along with the bear he supposedly defeated while traveling with Bishop Abraham of Freising. The legend says that Freising's Moor was a servant, however, the crown atop his head may refute said legend. The archdiocese of Munich, Pope Benedict XVI, and several Bavarian municipalities continue to use depictions of the "Freising Moor" on their official coats of arms, a testament to the presence and authority of Africans in medieval Europe.

Sir Morien from the Lancelot-Compilatie c. 1320 AD
"Maurus" (in the form of Maurice, Moritz and Morien, etc.) became synonymous with not only the aforementioned, but numerous blacks of high regard. Sir Morien (also Moriaan or Moriaen), for example, was a knight thoroughly described in the historical account, Lancelot-Compilatie (the Hague Lancelot Compilation), the Dutch version of Lancelot (1300s AD) as "all black. his head, his body, and his hands were all black, saving only his teeth." Morien is the son of Sir Agloval and a Moorish princess whom Agloval met in Africa during his quest to find the holy grail. Sir Morien is also described as a "bold knight" who experiences racism while seeking transportation overseas to reunite with his father, saying "None will take me over the water since I am a Moor."

In the 1490s AD, Catholic rulers had begun to rid the Iberian Peninsula of much of its large Islamic Moorish population (as well as other people who practiced non-Christian religions such as Judaism). After waging a long war on Granada, Spain's Ferdinand V and Isabella I seized control of that region in 1492, promising to keep religious freedom. However, Cardinal Francisco Jimenez Cisneros began a large-scale Inquisition in 1499, including mass coversions to Christianity, persecutions, book burnings, and closing mosques and synagogues, and by 1502 Ferdinand and Isabella expelled all non-Christians, which included many Moors (but not necessarily Christianized Moors).

Portugal's King Manuel also expelled non-Christians, many of whom were Moors, by royal decree in 1496. The result was that some relocated to other parts of Europe where they became high ranking nobility as their knowledge and skill continued to be highly valued. Although most Moorish families of nobility (the origin of the term "Black Nobility") intermarried with Europeans, their surnames continued to link to their African heritage. Family names such as Moore, Morris, Morrison, Morse, Black, Schwarz (the German word for "black"), Morandi, Morese, Negri, etc. all bear linguistic reference to their African ancestry. For example, the oldest Schwarz family crests even depict the image of an African, or "Schwarzkopf," ("black head" in German). Other families and municipalities adopted similar coats of arms which continue to exist in some form, demonstrating the important role Africans played in European history.

Personality and Interests

Italy is a cheerful, energetic man, who went from being the kin of Ancient Rome, to an irresponsible crybaby. He loves pasta, pizza, gelato, and cheese. Although he relies on Germany a lot, Italy doesn't really listen to what he says and instead daydreams or wanders off. His hobbies include cooking, siestas, painting, singing and also flirts with any cute girl he sees.

In the webcomic and the first drama CD, it is noted that he frequently gets stomach pains due to overindulging on gelato. Italy is shown to have a compulsion of stripping off all of his clothes for his daily 3PM "siestas", and usually forgets to put his pants back on after he wakes back up (causing Germany to have to lend him a pair of his own). His public nudity has become notorious enough to where Switzerland will fire upon him if he catches him streaking throughout his homeland.

He also has the verbal tic of making a "Ve" sound (really said by Italians, above all in Emilia-Romagna, whereas you could hear a "Be" in other Italian regions, which is an abbreviation of "bene", "good", and it has the same function of the English interjection "well" at the beginning of a sentence), though in the anime adaptation, he makes other onomatopoeic sounds as well, a more notable one being a chant of "Herahera" (a Japanese onomatopoeia which means "acting foolishly" or "frivolous") .

Though he was relatively weak and timid as a child, he was able to take on Turkey single-handedly at one point.


As the Roman Republic expanded, it reached a point where the central government in Rome could not effectively rule the distant provinces. Communications and transportation were especially problematic given the vast extent of the Empire. News of invasion, revolt, natural disasters, or epidemic outbreak was carried by ship or mounted postal service, often requiring much time to reach Rome and for Rome's orders to be returned and acted upon. Therefore, provincial governors had de facto autonomy in the name of the Roman Republic. Governors had several duties, including the command of armies, handling the taxes of the province and serving as the province's chief judges. [6]

Prior to the establishment of the Empire, the territories of the Roman Republic had been divided in 43 BC among the members of the Second Triumvirate: Mark Antony, Octavian and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Antony received the provinces in the East: Achaea, Macedonia and Epirus (roughly modern Greece, Albania and the coast of Croatia), Bithynia, Pontus and Asia (roughly modern Turkey), Syria, Cyprus, and Cyrenaica. [7] These lands had previously been conquered by Alexander the Great thus, much of the aristocracy was of Greek origin. The whole region, especially the major cities, had been largely assimilated into Greek culture, Greek often serving as the lingua franca. [8]

Octavian obtained the Roman provinces of the West: Italia (modern Italy), Gaul (modern France), Gallia Belgica (parts of modern Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg), and Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal). [7] These lands also included Greek and Carthaginian colonies in the coastal areas, though Celtic tribes such as Gauls and Celtiberians were culturally dominant. Lepidus received the minor province of Africa (roughly modern Tunisia). Octavian soon took Africa from Lepidus, while adding Sicilia (modern Sicily) to his holdings. [9]

Upon the defeat of Mark Antony, a victorious Octavian controlled a united Roman Empire. The Empire featured many distinct cultures, all experienced a gradual Romanization. [10] While the predominantly Greek culture of the East and the predominantly Latin culture of the West functioned effectively as an integrated whole, political and military developments would ultimately realign the Empire along those cultural and linguistic lines. More often than not, Greek and Latin practices (and to some extent the languages themselves) would be combined in fields such as history (e.g., those by Cato the Elder), philosophy and rhetoric. [11] [12] [13]

Rebellions and political developments Edit

Minor rebellions and uprisings were fairly common events throughout the Empire. Conquered tribes or oppressed cities would revolt, and the legions would be detached to crush the rebellion. While this process was simple in peacetime, it could be considerably more complicated in wartime. In a full-blown military campaign, the legions were far more numerous—as, for example, those led by Vespasian in the First Jewish–Roman War. To ensure a commander's loyalty, a pragmatic emperor might hold some members of the general's family hostage. To this end, Nero effectively held Domitian and Quintus Petillius Cerialis, Governor of Ostia, who were respectively the younger son and brother-in-law of Vespasian. Nero's rule was ended by a revolt of the Praetorian Guard, who had been bribed in the name of Galba. The Praetorian Guard, a figurative "sword of Damocles", was often perceived as being of dubious loyalty, primarily due its role in court intrigues and in overthrowing several emperors, including Pertinax and Aurelian. [14] [15] Following their example, the legions at the borders increasingly participated in civil wars. For instance, legions stationed in Egypt and the eastern provinces would see significant participation in the civil war of 218 between Emperor Macrinus and Elagabalus. [16]

As the Empire expanded, two key frontiers revealed themselves. In the West, behind the rivers Rhine and Danube, Germanic tribes were an important enemy. Augustus, the first emperor, had tried to conquer them but had pulled back after the disastrous Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. [17] Whilst the Germanic tribes were formidable foes, the Parthian Empire in the East presented the greatest threat to the Empire. The Parthians were too remote and powerful to be conquered and there was a constant Parthian threat of invasion. The Parthians repelled several Roman invasions, and even after successful wars of conquest, such as those implemented by Trajan or Septimius Severus, the conquered territories were forsaken in attempts to ensure a lasting peace with the Parthians. The Parthian Empire would be succeeded by the Sasanian Empire, which continued hostilities with the Roman Empire. [18]

Controlling the western border of Rome was reasonably easy because it was relatively close to Rome itself and also because of the disunity among the Germans. However, controlling both frontiers simultaneously during wartime was difficult. If the emperor was near the border in the East, the chances were high that an ambitious general would rebel in the West and vice versa. This wartime opportunism plagued many ruling emperors and indeed paved the road to power for several future emperors. By the time of the Crisis of the Third Century, usurpation became a common method of succession: Philip the Arab, Trebonianus Gallus and Aemilianus were all usurping generals-turned-emperors whose rule would end with usurpation by another powerful general. [19] [20] [21]

Crisis of the Third Century Edit

With the assassination of the Emperor Alexander Severus on 18 March 235, the Roman Empire sank into a 50-year period of civil war, now known as the Crisis of the Third Century. The rise of the bellicose Sasanian Empire in place of Parthia posed a major threat to Rome in the east, as demonstrated by Shapur I's capture of Emperor Valerian in 259. Valerian's eldest son and heir-apparent, Gallienus, succeeded him and took up the fight on the eastern frontier. Gallienus' son, Saloninus, and the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus were residing in Colonia Agrippina (modern Cologne) to solidify the loyalty of the local legions. Nevertheless, Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus – the local governor of the German provinces – rebelled his assault on Colonia Agrippina resulted in the deaths of Saloninus and the prefect. In the confusion that followed, an independent state known in modern historiography as the Gallic Empire emerged. [22]

Its capital was Augusta Treverorum (modern Trier), and it quickly expanded its control over the German and Gaulish provinces, all of Hispania and Britannia. It had its own senate, and a partial list of its consuls still survives. It maintained Roman religion, language, and culture, and was far more concerned with fighting the Germanic tribes, fending off Germanic incursions and restoring the security the Gallic provinces had enjoyed in the past, than in challenging the Roman central government. [23] However, in the reign of Claudius Gothicus (268 to 270), large expanses of the Gallic Empire were restored to Roman rule. At roughly the same time, several eastern provinces seceded to form the Palmyrene Empire, under the rule of Queen Zenobia. [24]

In 272, Emperor Aurelian finally managed to reclaim Palmyra and its territory for the empire. With the East secure, his attention turned to the West, invading the Gallic Empire a year later. Aurelian decisively defeated Tetricus I in the Battle of Châlons, and soon captured Tetricus and his son Tetricus II. Both Zenobia and the Tetrici were pardoned, although they were first paraded in a triumph. [25] [26]

Tetrarchy Edit

Diocletian was the first Emperor to divide the Roman Empire into a Tetrarchy. In 286 he elevated Maximian to the rank of augustus (emperor) and gave him control of the Western Empire while he himself ruled the East. [27] [28] [29] In 293, Galerius and Constantius Chlorus were appointed as their subordinates (caesars), creating the First Tetrarchy. This system effectively divided the Empire into four major regions, as a way to avoid the civil unrest that had marked the 3rd century. In the West, Maximian made Mediolanum (now Milan) his capital, and Constantius made Trier his. In the East, Galerius made his capital Sirmium and Diocletian made Nicomedia his. On 1 May 305, Diocletian and Maximian abdicated, replaced by Galerius and Constantius, who appointed Maximinus II and Valerius Severus, respectively, as their caesars, creating the Second Tetrarchy. [30]

The Tetrarchy collapsed after the unexpected death of Constantius in 306. His son, Constantine the Great, was declared Western Emperor by the British legions, [31] [32] [33] [34] but several other claimants arose and attempted to seize the Western Empire. In 308, Galerius held a meeting at Carnuntum, where he revived the Tetrarchy by dividing the Western Empire between Constantine and Licinius. [35] However, Constantine was more interested in conquering the whole empire than he was in the stability of the Tetrarchy, and by 314 began to compete against Licinius. Constantine defeated Licinius in 324, at the Battle of Chrysopolis, where Licinius was taken prisoner, and later murdered. [36] After Constantine unified the empire, he refounded the city of Byzantium in modern-day Turkey as Nova Roma ("New Rome"), later called Constantinople, and made it the capital of the Roman Empire. [37] The Tetrarchy was ended, although the concept of physically splitting the Roman Empire between two emperors remained. Although several powerful emperors unified both parts of the empire, this generally reverted in an empire divided into East and West upon their deaths, such as happened after the deaths of Constantine and Theodosius I. [38] [39]

Further divisions Edit

The Roman Empire was under the rule of a single Emperor, but, with the death of Constantine in 337, the empire was partitioned between his surviving male heirs. [38] Constantius, his third son and the second by his wife Fausta (Maximian's daughter) [40] received the eastern provinces, including Constantinople, Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Cyrenaica Constantine II received Britannia, Gaul, Hispania, and Mauretania and Constans, initially under the supervision of Constantine II, received Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Pannonia, Macedonia, and Achaea. The provinces of Thrace, Achaea and Macedonia were shortly controlled by Dalmatius, nephew of Constantine I and a caesar, not an Augustus, until his murder by his own soldiers in 337. [41] The West was unified in 340 under Constans, who was assassinated in 350 under the order of the usurper Magnentius. After Magnentius lost the Battle of Mursa Major and committed suicide, a complete reunification of the whole Empire occurred under Constantius in 353. [40]

Constantius II focused most of his power in the East. Under his rule, the city of Byzantium – only recently re-founded as Constantinople – was fully developed as a capital. At Constantinople, the political, economic and military control of the Eastern Empire's resources would remain safe for centuries to come. The city was well fortified and located at the crossroads of several major trade and military routes. The site had been acknowledged for its strategic importance already by emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla, more than a century prior. [42]

In 361, Constantius II became ill and died, and Constantius Chlorus' grandson Julian, who had served as Constantius II's Caesar, assumed power. Julian was killed in 363 in the Battle of Samarra against the Persian Empire and was succeeded by Jovian, who ruled for only nine months. [43] Following the death of Jovian, Valentinian I emerged as Emperor in 364. He immediately divided the Empire once again, giving the eastern half to his brother Valens. Stability was not achieved for long in either half, as the conflicts with outside forces (barbarian tribes) intensified. In 376, the Visigoths, fleeing before the Ostrogoths, who in turn were fleeing before the Huns, were allowed to cross the river Danube and settle in the Balkans by the Eastern government. Mistreatment caused a full-scale rebellion, and in 378 they inflicted a crippling defeat on the Eastern Roman field army in the Battle of Adrianople, in which Emperor Valens also died. The defeat at Adrianople was shocking to the Romans, and forced them to negotiate with and settle the Visigoths within the borders of the Empire, where they would become semi-independent foederati under their own leaders. [44]

More than in the East, there was also opposition to the Christianizing policy of the Emperors in the western part of the Empire. In 379, Valentinian I's son and successor Gratian declined to wear the mantle of Pontifex Maximus, and in 382 he rescinded the rights of pagan priests and removed the Altar of Victory from the Roman Curia, a decision which caused dissatisfaction among the traditionally pagan aristocracy of Rome. [45] Theodosius I later decreed the Edict of Thessalonica, which banned all religions except Christianity. [46]

The political situation was unstable. In 383, a powerful and popular general named Magnus Maximus seized power in the West and forced Gratian's half-brother Valentinian II to flee to the East for aid in a destructive civil war the Eastern Emperor Theodosius I restored him to power. [47] In 392, the Frankish and pagan magister militum Arbogast assassinated Valentinian II and proclaimed an obscure senator named Eugenius as Emperor. In 394 the forces of the two halves of the Empire again clashed with great loss of life. Again Theodosius I won, and he briefly ruled a united Empire until his death in 395. He was the last Emperor to rule both parts of the Roman Empire before the West fragmented and collapsed. [39]

Theodosius I's older son Arcadius inherited the eastern half while the younger Honorius got the western half. Both were still minors and neither was capable of ruling effectively. Honorius was placed under the tutelage of the half-Roman/half-barbarian magister militum Flavius Stilicho, [48] while Rufinus became the power behind the throne in the east. Rufinus and Stilicho were rivals, and their disagreements would be exploited by the Gothic leader Alaric I who again rebelled in 408 following the massacre by Roman legions of thousands of barbarian families who were trying to assimilate into the Roman empire. [49]

Neither half of the Empire could raise forces sufficient even to subdue Alaric's men, and both tried to use Alaric against the other half. Alaric himself tried to establish a long-term territorial and official base, but was never able to do so. Stilicho tried to defend Italy and bring the invading Goths under control, but to do so he stripped the Rhine frontier of troops and the Vandals, Alans, and Suevi invaded Gaul in large numbers in 406. Stilicho became a victim of court intrigues and was killed in 408. While the East began a slow recovery and consolidation, the West began to collapse entirely. Alaric's men sacked Rome in 410. [50]

Reign of Honorius Edit

Honorius, the younger son of Theodosius I, was declared Augustus (and as such co-emperor with his father) on 23 January in 393. Upon the death of Theodosius, Honorius inherited the throne of the West at the age of ten whilst his older brother Arcadius inherited the East. The western capital was initially Mediolanum, as it had been during previous divisions, but it was moved to Ravenna in 402 upon the entry of the Visigothic king Alaric I into Italy. Ravenna, protected by abundant marshes and strong fortifications, was far easier to defend and had easy access to the imperial fleet of the Eastern Empire but made it more difficult for the Roman military to defend the central parts of Italy from regular barbarian incursions. [51] Ravenna would remain the western capital for 74 years until the deposition of Romulus Augustulus and would later be the capital of both the Ostrogothic Kingdom and the Exarchate of Ravenna. [52] [53]

Despite the moved capital, economic power remained focused on Rome and its rich senatorial aristocracy which dominated much of Italy and Africa in particular. After Emperor Gallienus had banned senators from army commands in the mid-3rd century, the senatorial elite lost all experience of—and interest in—military life. [54] In the early 5th century the wealthy landowning elite of the Roman Senate largely barred its tenants from military service, but it also refused to approve sufficient funding for maintaining a sufficiently powerful mercenary army to defend the entire Western Empire. The West's most important military area had been northern Gaul and the Rhine frontier in the 4th century, when Trier frequently served as a military capital of sorts for the Empire. Many leading Western generals were barbarians. [55]

The reign of Honorius was, even by Western Roman standards, chaotic and plagued by both internal and external struggles. The Visigothic foederati under Alaric, magister militum in Illyricum, rebelled in 395. Gildo, the Comes Africae and Magister utriusque militiae per Africam, rebelled in 397 and initiated the Gildonic War. Stilicho managed to subdue Gildo but was campaigning in Raetia when the Visigoths entered Italy in 402. [56] Stilicho, hurrying back to aid in defending Italy, summoned legions in Gaul and Britain with which he managed to defeat Alaric twice before agreeing to allow him to retreat back to Illyria. [57]

The weakening of the frontiers in Britain and Gaul had dire consequences for the Empire. As the imperial government was not providing the military protection the northern provinces expected and needed, numerous usurpers arose in Britain, including Marcus (406–407), Gratian (407), and Constantine III who invaded Gaul in 407. [58] Britain was effectively abandoned by the empire by 410 due to the lack of resources and the need to look after more important frontiers. The weakening of the Rhine frontier allowed multiple barbarian tribes, including the Vandals, Alans and Suebi, to cross the river and enter Roman territory in 406. [59]

Honorius was convinced by the minister Olympius that Stilicho was conspiring to overthrow him, and so arrested and executed Stilicho in 408. [60] Olympius headed a conspiracy that orchestrated the deaths of key individuals related to the faction of Stilicho, including his son and the families of many of his federated troops. This led many of the soldiers to instead join with Alaric, who returned to Italy in 409 and met little opposition. Despite attempts by Honorius to reach a settlement and six legions of Eastern Roman soldiers sent to support him, [61] the negotiations between Alaric and Honorius broke down in 410 and Alaric sacked the city of Rome. Though the sack was relatively mild and Rome was no longer the capital of even the Western Empire, the event shocked people across both halves of the Empire as this was the first time Rome (viewed at least as the symbolic heart of the Empire) had fallen to a foreign enemy since the Gallic invasions of the 4th century BC. The Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II, the successor of Arcadius, declared three days of mourning in Constantinople. [62]

Without Stilicho and following the sack of Rome, Honorius' reign grew more chaotic. The usurper Constantine III had stripped Roman Britain of its defenses when he crossed over to Gaul in 407, leaving the Romanized population subject to invasions, first by the Picts and then by the Saxons, Angli, and the Jutes who began to settle permanently from about 440 onwards. After Honorius accepted Constantine as co-emperor, Constantine's general in Hispania, Gerontius, proclaimed Maximus as Emperor. With the aid of general Constantius, Honorius defeated Gerontius and Maximus in 411 and shortly thereafter captured and executed Constantine III. With Constantius back in Italy, the Gallo-Roman senator Jovinus revolted after proclaiming himself Emperor, with the support of the Gallic nobility and the barbarian Burgundians and Alans. Honorius turned to the Visigoths under King Athaulf for support. [63] Athaulf defeated and executed Jovinus and his proclaimed co-emperor Sebastianus in 413, around the same time as another usurper arose in Africa, Heraclianus. Heraclianus attempted to invade Italy but failed and retreated to Carthage, where he was killed. [64]

With the Roman legions withdrawn, northern Gaul became increasingly subject to Frankish influence, the Franks naturally adopting a leading role in the region. In 418, Honorius granted southwestern Gaul (Gallia Aquitania) to the Visigoths as a vassal federation. Honorius removed the local imperial governors, leaving the Visigoths and the provincial Roman inhabitants to conduct their own affairs. As such, the first of the "barbarian kingdoms", the Visigothic Kingdom, was formed. [65]

Escalating barbarian conflicts Edit

Honorius' death in 423 was followed by turmoil until the Eastern Roman government installed Valentinian III as Western Emperor in Ravenna by force of arms, with Galla Placidia acting as regent during her son's minority. Theodosius II, the Eastern Emperor, had hesitated to announce the death of Honorius and in the ensuing interregnum, Joannes was nominated as Western Emperor. Joannes' "rule" was short and the forces of the East defeated and executed him in 425. [66]

After a violent struggle with several rivals, and against Placidia's wish, Aetius rose to the rank of magister militum. Aetius was able to stabilize the Western Empire's military situation somewhat, relying heavily on his Hunnic allies. With their help Aetius undertook extensive campaigns in Gaul, defeating the Visigoths in 437 and 438 but suffering a defeat himself in 439, ending the conflict in a status quo ante with a treaty. [67]

Meanwhile, pressure from the Visigoths and a rebellion by Bonifacius, the governor of Africa, induced the Vandals under King Gaiseric to cross from Spain to Tingitana in what is now Morocco in 429. They temporarily halted in Numidia in 435 before moving eastward. With Aetius occupied in Gaul, the Western Roman government could do nothing to prevent the Vandals conquering the wealthy African provinces, culminating in the fall of Carthage on 19 October 439 and the establishment of the Vandal Kingdom. By the 400s, Italy and Rome itself were dependent on the taxes and foodstuffs from these provinces, leading to an economic crisis. With Vandal fleets becoming an increasing danger to Roman sea trade and the coasts and islands of the western and central Mediterranean, Aetius coordinated a counterattack against the Vandals in 440, organizing a large army in Sicily. [68]

However, the plans for retaking Africa had to be abandoned due to the immediate need to combat the invading Huns, who in 444 were united under their ambitious king Attila. Turning against their former ally, the Huns became a formidable threat to the Empire. Aetius transferred his forces to the Danube, [68] though Attila concentrated on raiding the Eastern Roman provinces in the Balkans, providing temporary relief to the Western Empire. In 449, Attila received a message from Honoria, Valentinian III's sister, offering him half the western empire if he would rescue her from an unwanted marriage that her brother was forcing her into. With a pretext to invade the West, Attila secured peace with the Eastern court and crossed the Rhine in early 451. [69] With Attila wreaking havoc in Gaul, Aetius gathered a coalition of Roman and Germanic forces, including Visigoths and Burgundians, and prevented the Huns from taking the city of Aurelianum, forcing them into retreat. [70] At the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, the Roman-Germanic coalition met and defeated the Hunnic forces, though Attila escaped. [71]

Attila regrouped and invaded Italy in 452. With Aetius not having enough forces to attack him, the road to Rome was open. Valentinian sent Pope Leo I and two leading senators to negotiate with Attila. This embassy, combined with a plague among Attila's troops, the threat of famine, and news that the Eastern Emperor Marcian had launched an attack on the Hun homelands along the Danube, forced Attila to turn back and leave Italy. When Attila died unexpectedly in 453, the power struggle that erupted between his sons ended the threat posed by the Huns. [72]

Internal unrest and Majorian Edit

Valentinian III was intimidated by Aetius and was encouraged by the Roman senator Petronius Maximus and the chamberlain Heraclius to assassinate him. When Aetius was at court in Ravenna delivering a financial account, Valentinian suddenly leaped from his seat and declared that he would no longer be the victim of Aetius' drunken depravities. Aetius attempted to defend himself from the charges, but Valentinian drew his sword and struck the weaponless Aetius on the head, killing him on the spot. [73] On 16 March the following year, Valentinian himself was killed by supporters of the dead general, possibly acting for Petronius Maximus. With the end of the Theodosian dynasty, Petronius Maximus proclaimed himself emperor during the ensuing period of unrest. [74]

Petronius was not able to take effective control of the significantly weakened and unstable Empire. He broke the betrothal between Huneric, son of the Vandal king Gaiseric, and Eudocia, daughter of Valentinian III. This was seen as a just cause of war by King Gaiseric, who set sail to attack Rome. Petronius and his supporters attempted to flee the city at the sight of the approaching Vandals, only to be stoned to death by a Roman mob. Petronius had reigned only 11 weeks. [75] With the Vandals at the gates, Pope Leo I requested that the King not destroy the ancient city or murder its inhabitants, to which Gaiseric agreed and the city gates were opened to him. Though keeping his promise, Gaiseric looted great amounts of treasure and damaged objects of cultural significance such as the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. The severity of the Vandal sack of 455 is disputed, though with the Vandals plundering the city for a full fourteen days as opposed to the Visigothic sack of 410, where the Visigoths only spent three days in the city, it was likely more thorough. [76]

Avitus, a prominent general under Petronius, was proclaimed emperor by the Visigothic king Theodoric II and accepted as such by the Roman Senate. Though supported by the Gallic provinces and the Visigoths, Avitus was resented in Italy due to ongoing food shortages caused by Vandal control of trade routes, and for using a Visigothic imperial guard. He disbanded his guard due to popular pressure, and the Suebian general Ricimer used the opportunity to depose Avitus, counting on popular discontent. After the deposition of Avitus, the Eastern Emperor Leo I did not select a new western Augustus. The prominent general Majorian defeated an invading force of Alemanni and was subsequently proclaimed Western Emperor by the army and eventually accepted as such by Leo. [77]

Majorian was the last Western Emperor to attempt to recover the Western Empire with his own military forces. To prepare, Majorian significantly strengthened the Western Roman army by recruiting large numbers of barbarian mercenaries, among them the Gepids, Ostrogoths, Rugii, Burgundians, Huns, Bastarnae, Suebi, Scythians and Alans, and built two fleets, one at Ravenna, to combat the strong Vandalic fleet. Majorian personally led the army to wage war in Gaul, leaving Ricimer in Italy. The Gallic provinces and the Visigothic Kingdom had rebelled following the deposition of Avitus, refusing to acknowledge Majorian as lawful emperor. At the Battle of Arelate, Majorian decisively defeated the Visigoths under Theoderic II and forced them to relinquish their great conquests in Hispania and return to foederati status. Majorian then entered the Rhone Valley, where he defeated the Burgundians and reconquered the rebel city of Lugdunum. With Gaul back under Roman control, Majorian turned his eyes to the Vandals and Africa. Not only did the Vandals pose a constant danger to coastal Italy and trade in the Mediterranean, but the province they ruled was economically vital to the survival of the West. Majorian began a campaign to fully reconquer Hispania to use it as a base for the reconquest of Africa. Throughout 459, Majorian campaigned against the Suebi in northwestern Hispania. [77]

The Vandals began to increasingly fear a Roman invasion. King Gaiseric tried to negotiate a peace with Majorian, who rejected the proposal. In the wake of this, Gaiseric devastated Mauretania, part of his own kingdom, fearing that the Roman army would land there. Having regained control of Hispania, Majorian intended to use his fleet at Carthaginiensis to attack the Vandals. Before he could, the fleet was destroyed, allegedly by traitors paid by the Vandals. Deprived of his fleet, Majorian had to cancel his attack on the Vandals and conclude a peace with Gaiseric. Disbanding his barbarian forces, Majorian intended to return to Rome and issue reforms, stopping at Arelate on his way. Here, Ricimer deposed and arrested him in 461, having gathered significant aristocratic opposition against Majorian. After five days of beatings and torture, Majorian was beheaded near the river Iria. [77]

Collapse Edit

The final collapse of the Empire in the West was marked by increasingly ineffectual puppet Emperors dominated by their Germanic magister militums. The most pointed example of this is Ricimer, who effectively became a "shadow Emperor" following the depositions of Avitus and Majorian. Unable to take the throne for himself due to his barbarian heritage, Ricimer appointed a series of puppet Emperors who could do little to halt the collapse of Roman authority and the loss of the territories re-conquered by Majorian. [78] The first of these puppet emperors, Libius Severus, had no recognition outside of Italy, with the Eastern Emperor Leo I and provincial governors in Gaul and Illyria all refusing to recognize him. [79]

Severus died in 465 and Leo I, with the consent of Ricimer, appointed the capable Eastern general Anthemius as Western Emperor following an eighteen-month interregnum. The relationship between Anthemius and the East was good, Anthemius is the last Western Emperor recorded in an Eastern law, and the two courts conducted a joint operation to retake Africa from the Vandals, culminating in the disastrous Battle of Cape Bon in 468. In addition Anthemius conducted failed campaigns against the Visigoths, hoping to halt their expansion. [78]

The trial and subsequent execution of Romanus, an Italian senator and friend of Ricimer, on the grounds of treachery in 470 made Ricimer hostile to Anthemius. Following two years of ill feeling, Ricimer deposed and killed Anthemius in 472, elevating Olybrius to the Western throne. [80] During the brief reign of Olybrius, Ricimer died and his nephew Gundobad succeeded him as magister militum. After only seven months of rule, Olybrius died of dropsy. Gundobad elevated Glycerius to Western Emperor. The Eastern Empire had rejected Olybrius and also rejected Glycerius, instead supporting a candidate of their own, Julius Nepos, magister militum in Dalmatia. With the support of Eastern Emperors Leo II and Zeno, Julius Nepos crossed the Adriatic Sea in the spring of 474 to depose Glycerius. At the arrival of Nepos in Italy, Glycerius abdicated without a fight and was allowed to live out his life as the Bishop of Salona. [81]

The brief rule of Nepos in Italy ended in 475 when Orestes, a former secretary of Attila and the magister militum of Julius Nepos, took control of Ravenna and forced Nepos to flee by ship to Dalmatia. Later in the same year, Orestes crowned his own young son as Western Emperor under the name Romulus Augustus. Romulus Augustus was not recognised as Western Emperor by the Eastern Court, who maintained that Nepos was the only legal Western Emperor, reigning in exile from Dalmatia. [82]

On 4 September 476, Odoacer, leader of the Germanic foederati in Italy, captured Ravenna, killed Orestes and deposed Romulus. Though Romulus was deposed, Nepos did not return to Italy and continued to reign as Western Emperor from Dalmatia, with support from Constantinople. Odoacer proclaimed himself ruler of Italy and began to negotiate with the Eastern Emperor Zeno. Zeno eventually granted Odoacer patrician status as recognition of his authority and accepted him as his viceroy of Italy. Zeno, however, insisted that Odoacer had to pay homage to Julius Nepos as the Emperor of the Western Empire. Odoacer accepted this condition and issued coins in the name of Julius Nepos throughout Italy. This, however, was mainly an empty political gesture, as Odoacer never returned any real power or territories to Nepos. The murder of Nepos in 480 prompted Odoacer to invade Dalmatia, annexing it to his Kingdom of Italy. [83]

Fall of the Empire Edit

By convention, the Western Roman Empire is deemed to have ended on 4 September 476, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus, but the historical record calls this determination into question. Indeed, the deposition of Romulus Augustus received very little attention in contemporary times. Romulus was a usurper in the eyes of the Eastern Roman Empire and the remaining territories of Western Roman control outside of Italy, with the previous emperor Julius Nepos still being alive and claiming to rule the Western Empire in Dalmatia. Furthermore, the Western court had lacked true power and had been subject to Germanic aristocrats for decades, with most of its legal territory being under control of various barbarian kingdoms. With Odoacer recognising Julius Nepos, and later the Eastern Emperor Zeno, as his sovereign, nominal Roman control continued in Italy. [84] Syagrius, who had managed to preserve Roman sovereignty in an exclave in northern Gaul (a realm today known as the Domain of Soissons) also recognized Nepos as his sovereign and the legitimate Western Emperor. [85]

The authority of Julius Nepos as Emperor was accepted not only by Odoacer in Italy, but by the Eastern Empire and Syagrius in Gaul (who had not recognized Romulus Augustulus). Nepos was murdered by his own soldiers in 480, a plot some attribute to Odoacer or the previous, deposed emperor Glycerius, [86] and the Eastern Emperor Zeno chose not to appoint a new western emperor. Zeno, recognizing that no true Roman control remained over the territories legally governed by the Western court, instead chose to abolish the juridical division of the position of Emperor and declared himself the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. Zeno became the first sole Roman emperor since the division after Theodosius I, 85 years prior, and the position would never again be divided. As such, the (eastern) Roman emperors after 480 are the successors of the western ones, albeit only in a juridical sense. [87] These emperors would continue to rule the Roman Empire until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, nearly a thousand years later. [88] As 480 marks the end of the juridical division of the empire into two imperial courts, some historians refer to the death of Nepos and abolition of the Western Empire by Zeno as the end of the Western Roman Empire. [85] [89]

Despite the fall, or abolition, of the Western Empire, many of the new kings of western Europe continued to operate firmly within a Roman administrative framework. This is especially true in the case of the Ostrogoths, who came to rule Italy after Odoacer. They continued to use the administrative systems of Odoacer's kingdom, essentially those of the Western Roman Empire, and administrative positions continued to be staffed exclusively by Romans. The Senate continued to function as it always had, and the laws of the Empire were recognized as ruling the Roman population, though the Goths were ruled by their own traditional laws. [90] Western Roman administrative institutions, in particular those of Italy, thus continued to be used during "barbarian" rule and after the forces of the Eastern Roman empire re-conquered some of the formerly imperial territories. Some historians thus refer to the reorganizations of Italy and abolition of the old and separate Western Roman administrative units, such as the Praetorian prefecture of Italy, during the sixth century as the "true" fall of the Western Roman Empire. [84]

Roman cultural traditions continued throughout the territory of the Western Empire for long after its disappearance, and a recent school of interpretation argues that the great political changes can more accurately be described as a complex cultural transformation, rather than a fall. [91]

How Italy Was Defeated In East Africa In 1941

In October 1935 Italian troops invaded Ethiopia – then also known as Abyssinia – forcing the country's Emperor, Haile Selassie, into exile. Ignoring protests from the League of Nations, the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini proclaimed a new Italian empire in East Africa, comprising Ethiopia and the pre-existing territories of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea.

Following early successes by Italy's ally, Germany, in the Second World War, Mussolini declared war on Britain in June 1940. This meant that British possessions in East Africa, as well as British-controlled Egypt and the vital supply route of the Suez Canal, were now threatened.

The Italians attacked border posts in Kenya and Sudan, and captured British Somaliland in August. The Italian Viceroy, the Duke of Aosta, then ordered his troops to halt, allowing the initiative to pass to the British.

General Archibald Wavell, British Commander-in-Chief Middle East, planned a three-pronged counter-offensive to dismantle Italy's East African Empire. His force was outnumbered, but he had air support from the Royal Air Force (RAF).

In January 1941 Lieutenant General William Platt led forces from Sudan into Eritrea. The Italians quickly retreated and, in March, Indian and British troops won an important victory at Keren.

Culinary Conquest

Throughout much of Italy's history, common people ate very differently from the rich, relying on locally grown beans and grains, a few homegrown vegetables, or foraged greens and herbs. Tuscany, now regarded as a place for culinary pilgrimages, was long known as the land of the bean eaters. But this Italian tradition of cooking seasonally and relying on the freshest, sometimes simplest, ingredients is now a worldwide passion. Classic Italian ingredients like olive oil, balsamic vinegar, pasta and herbs like basil and rosemary are now pantry staples everywhere – even farro, the ancient Roman grain, is making a splash in the culinary world.

Watch the video: Ιταλία, Μπάρι


  1. Gagami

    Thank you very much for your help on this issue, now I will know.

  2. Brataur

    It is more than word!

  3. Anwealda

    You are absolutely right. There is something in this and I think this is a very good idea. I completely agree with you.

  4. Jory

    What interesting question

Write a message